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Tachyarrhythmias may appear in the presence or absence of structural heart disease; they are more serious in the former. Conditions that provoke arrhythmias include (1) myocardial ischemia, (2) heart failure, (3) hypoxemia, (4) hypercapnia, (5) hypotension, (6) electrolyte disturbances (e.g., hypokalemia and/or hypomagnesemia), (7) drug toxicity (digoxin, pharmacologic agents that prolong the QT interval), (8) caffeine consumption, (9) ethanol consumption.