The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) defines a SUD as a pattern of use of amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, or other stimulants leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following 11 problems within a 12-month period: taking larger amounts, or over a longer period of time, than intended; persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control; a great deal of time spent in activities necessary to obtain, use, or recover; craving; use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations; continued use, despite recurrent social or interpersonal problems; giving up social, occupational, or recreational activities; recurrent use in physically hazardous situations; continued use despite persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problems; tolerance; and withdrawal symptoms, or avoidance of withdrawal symptoms, by continued use.

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