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INCIDENCE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
Annual incidence in the United States is about 74,000 cases with 16,000 deaths. Median age is 65 years. Smoking accounts for 50% of the risk. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increases the risk, especially in slow acetylators. Risk is increased in chimney sweeps, dry cleaners, and those involved in aluminum manufacturing. Chronic cyclophosphamide exposure increases risk ninefold. Schistosoma haematobium infection also increases risk, especially of squamous histology.