BLADDER CANCER is a topic covered in the Harrison's Manual of Medicine.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Harrison’s Manual of Medicine 19th edition provides 600+ internal medicine topics in a rapid-access format. Download Harrison’s App to iPhone, iPad, and Android smartphone and tablet. Explore these free sample topics:

Harrison’s Manual of Medicine - App + Web

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --


Annual incidence in the United States is about 74,000 cases with 16,000 deaths. Median age is 65 years. Smoking accounts for 50% of the risk. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increases the risk, especially in slow acetylators. Risk is increased in chimney sweeps, dry cleaners, and those involved in aluminum manufacturing. Chronic cyclophosphamide exposure increases risk ninefold. Schistosoma haematobium infection also increases risk, especially of squamous histology.

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --