PRESENTATION is a topic covered in the Harrison's Manual of Medicine.

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  1. Hematemesis: Vomiting of blood or altered blood (“coffee grounds”) indicates bleeding proximal to ligament of Treitz.
  2. Melena: Altered (black) blood per rectum (>100-mL blood required for one melenic stool) usually indicates bleeding proximal to ligament of Treitz but may be as distal as ascending colon; pseudomelena may be caused by ingestion of iron, bismuth, licorice, beets, blueberries, and charcoal.
  3. Hematochezia: Bright red or maroon rectal bleeding usually implies bleeding beyond ligament of Treitz but may be due to rapid upper GI bleeding (>1000 mL).
  4. Positive fecal occult blood test with or without iron deficiency.
  5. Symptoms of blood loss: e.g., light-headedness or shortness of breath.

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* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - PRESENTATION ID - 623558 ED - Fauci,Anthony S, ED - Hauser,Stephen L, ED - Jameson,J Larry, ED - Kasper,Dennis L, ED - Longo,Dan L, ED - Loscalzo,Joseph, BT - Harrison's Manual of Medicine UR - PB - McGraw Hill Inc. ET - 19 DB - Harrison's Manual of Medicine DP - Unbound Medicine ER -