ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC MYOPATHIES
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Abnormalities of thyroid function can cause a wide array of muscle disorders. Hypothyroidism is associated with muscle cramps, pain, and stiffness, and proximal muscle weakness occurs in one-third of pts; the relaxation phase of muscle stretch reflexes is prolonged, and serum CK is often elevated (up to 10 times normal).
Hyperthyroidism can produce proximal muscle weakness and atrophy; bulbar, respiratory, and even esophageal muscles are occasionally involved, causing dysphagia, dysphonia, and aspiration. Other neuromuscular disorders associated with hyperthyroidism include hypoKPP, myasthenia gravis, and a progressive ocular myopathy associated with proptosis (Graves’ ophthalmopathy).
Parathyroid, adrenal, and pituitary disorders, as well as diabetes mellitus, can also produce myopathy. Deficiencies of vitamins D and E are additional causes of muscle weakness.
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Loscalzo, Joseph, et al., editors. "ENDOCRINE and METABOLIC MYOPATHIES." Harrison's Manual of Medicine, 19th ed., McGraw Hill Inc., 2017. harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623492/all/ENDOCRINE_AND_METABOLIC_MYOPATHIES.
ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC MYOPATHIES. In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, et al, eds. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623492/all/ENDOCRINE_AND_METABOLIC_MYOPATHIES. Accessed April 23, 2019.
ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC MYOPATHIES. (2017). In Loscalzo, J., Jameson, J. L., Longo, D. L., Hauser, S. L., Fauci, A. S., & Kasper, D. L. (Eds.), Harrison's Manual of Medicine. Available from https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623492/all/ENDOCRINE_AND_METABOLIC_MYOPATHIES
ENDOCRINE and METABOLIC MYOPATHIES [Internet]. In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, Hauser SL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, editors. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. [cited 2019 April 23]. Available from: https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623492/all/ENDOCRINE_AND_METABOLIC_MYOPATHIES.
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