INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE
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A limited volume of extra tissue, blood, CSF, or edema can be added to the intracranial contents without raising the intracranial pressure (ICP). Clinical deterioration or death may follow increases in ICP that shift intracranial contents, distort vital brainstem centers, or compromise cerebral perfusion. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), defined as the mean arterial pressure (MAP) minus the ICP, is the driving force for circulation across capillary beds of the brain; decreased CPP is a fundamental mechanism of secondary ischemic brain injury and constitutes an emergency that requires immediate attention. In general, ICP should be maintained at <20 mmHg and CPP should be maintained at ≥60 mmHg.