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Excessive ventilation causes a primary reduction in CO2 and ↑ pH in pneumonia, pulmonary edema, interstitial lung disease, and asthma. Pain and psychogenic causes are common; other etiologies include fever, hypoxemia, sepsis, delirium tremens, salicylates, hepatic failure, mechanical overventilation, and CNS lesions. Pregnancy is associated with a mild respiratory alkalosis. Severe respiratory alkalosis may acutely cause seizures, tetany, cardiac arrhythmias, or loss of consciousness.