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Defective mineralization of the organic matrix of bone results in osteomalacia. The childhood form of osteomalacia is called rickets. Osteomalacia is caused by inadequate intake or malabsorption of vitamin D (chronic pancreatic insufficiency, gastrectomy, malabsorption) and disorders of vitamin D metabolism (anticonvulsant therapy, chronic renal failure, genetic disorders of vitamin D activation or action). Osteomalacia can also be caused by long-standing hypophosphatemia, which can be due to renal phosphate wasting (e.g., X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets or oncogenic osteomalacia) or excessive use of phosphate binders.