Thyroid neoplasms may be benign (adenomas) or malignant (carcinomas). Carcinomas of the follicular epithelium include papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer incidence is ∼14/100,000 per year and increases with age. Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer (70–90%). It tends to be multifocal and to invade locally. Follicular thyroid cancer is difficult to diagnose via FNA because the distinction between benign and malignant follicular neoplasms rests largely on evidence of invasion into vessels, nerves, or adjacent structures. It tends to spread hematogenously, leading to bone, lung, and CNS metastases. Anaplastic carcinoma is rare, highly malignant, and rapidly fatal. Thyroid lymphoma may arise in the background of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and occurs in the setting of a rapidly expanding thyroid mass. Medullary thyroid carcinoma arises from parafollicular (C) cells producing calcitonin and may occur sporadically or as a familial disorder, sometimes in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

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