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A variety of disorders may cause deficiencies of one or more pituitary hormones. These disorders may be genetic, congenital, traumatic (pituitary surgery, cranial irradiation, head injury), neoplastic (large pituitary adenoma, parasellar mass, craniopharyngioma, metastases, meningioma), infiltrative (hemochromatosis, lymphocytic hypophysitis, sarcoidosis, histiocytosis X), vascular (pituitary apoplexy, postpartum necrosis, sickle cell disease), or infectious (tuberculous, fungal, parasitic). The most common cause of hypopituitarism is neoplastic in origin (macroadenomatous destruction, or following hypophysectomy or radiation therapy). Pituitary hormone failure due to compression, destruction, or radiation therapy typically follows a sequential pattern: GH>FSH>LH>TSH>ACTH. Genetic causes of hypopituitarism may affect several hormones (e.g., pituitary dysplasia, PROP-1 and PIT-1 mutations) or be restricted to single pituitary hormones or axes (e.g., isolated GH deficiency, Kallmann syndrome, isolated ACTH deficiency). Hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation develops over 5–15 years. Varying degrees of partial to complete hormone deficiencies occur during evolution of pituitary destruction.
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Loscalzo, Joseph, et al., editors. "HYPOPITUITARISM." Harrison's Manual of Medicine, 19th ed., McGraw Hill Inc., 2017. harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623413/all/HYPOPITUITARISM.
HYPOPITUITARISM. In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, et al, eds. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623413/all/HYPOPITUITARISM. Accessed April 18, 2019.
HYPOPITUITARISM. (2017). In Loscalzo, J., Jameson, J. L., Longo, D. L., Hauser, S. L., Fauci, A. S., & Kasper, D. L. (Eds.), Harrison's Manual of Medicine. Available from https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623413/all/HYPOPITUITARISM
HYPOPITUITARISM [Internet]. In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, Hauser SL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, editors. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. [cited 2019 April 18]. Available from: https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623413/all/HYPOPITUITARISM.
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ED - Jameson,J Larry,
ED - Longo,Dan L,
ED - Hauser,Stephen L,
ED - Fauci,Anthony S,
ED - Kasper,Dennis L,
BT - Harrison's Manual of Medicine
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PB - McGraw Hill Inc.
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DB - Harrison's Manual of Medicine
DP - Unbound Medicine