This describes a number of pathophysiologically distinct entities of tubular function whose common feature is the presence of a non-anion-gap metabolic acidosis. Diarrhea, CKD, and RTA together constitute the vast majority of cases of non-anion-gap metabolic acidosis. Pts with earlier stages of CKD (Table 48-1) typically develop a non-anion-gap acidosis, with a superimposed increase in the anion gap at later stages (Chap. 2: Acid-Base Disorders). Acidosis may develop at an earlier stage of CKD in those with prominent injury to the distal nephron, as for example in reflux nephropathy.

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