ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY is a topic covered in the Harrison's Manual of Medicine.

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Visualizes heart in real time with ultrasound; Doppler recordings noninvasively assess hemodynamics and abnormal flow patterns (Table 112-1 and Fig. 112-1). Imaging may be compromised in pts with chronic obstructive lung disease, thick chest wall, or narrow intercostal spaces.

2-D EchoTransesophageal Echocardiography
Cardiac chambers: size, hypertrophy, wall motion abnormalities Superior to 2-D echo to identify: Infective endocarditis
Valves: morphology and motion Cardiac source of embolism
Pericardium: effusion, tamponade Prosthetic valve dysfunction
Aorta: aneurysm, dissection Aortic dissection
Assess intracardiac masses 
Doppler EchocardiographyStress Echocardiography
Valvular stenosis and regurgitationAssess myocardial ischemia and viability
Intracardiac shunts 
Diastolic filling/dysfunction 
Approximate intracardiac pressures 
FIGURE 112-1

Two-dimensional echocardiographic still-frame images of a normal heart. Upper: Parasternal long axis view during systole and diastole (left) and systole (right). During systole, there is thickening of the myocardium and reduction in the size of the left ventricle (LV). The valve leaflets are thin and open widely. Lower: Parasternal short axis view during diastole (left) and systole (right) demonstrating a decrease in the left ventricular cavity size during systole as well as an increase in wall thickness. Ao, aorta. (Reproduced from RJ Myerburg: HPIM-12.)

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