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Talaromyces marneffei (formerly Penicillium marneffei) is a leading cause of opportunistic infection in pts with immunocompromise (e.g., due to AIDS) in Southeast Asia and is acquired by spore inhalation. Clinical manifestations are similar to those of disseminated histoplasmosis, with fever, fatigue, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and skin lesions resembling molluscum contagiosum. The organism grows readily in culture and produces a distinctive red pigment. AmB is the initial treatment of choice for severely ill pts; less severe disease may be treated with itraconazole (200 mg bid for 12 weeks). Suppressive therapy with itraconazole (200 mg/d) may be indicated for pts with HIV infection or AIDS until the CD4+ T cell count is >100 cells/μL for ≥6 months.