INFECTIONS CAUSED BY ARTHROPOD- AND RODENT-BORNE VIRUSES
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Microbiology and Pathogenesis
Most zoonotic viruses only incidentally infect and produce disease in humans; only a few agents are regularly spread among humans by arthropods.
- The major families of arthropod- and rodent-borne viruses include the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Togaviridae—all RNA viruses.
- Arthropod-borne viruses infect the vector after a blood meal from a viremic vertebrate (usually nonhuman); after spreading throughout the vector and ultimately reaching the salivary glands, the viruses can be transmitted to another vertebrate during a blood meal.
- Humans become infected with rodent-borne viruses by inhalation of aerosols containing the viruses and through close contact with chronically infected rodents and their excreta.