Nocardiae are branching, beaded, gram-positive filaments that usually give positive results with modified acid-fast stains. These saprophytic aerobic actinomycetes are common in soil.

  • Nine species or species complexes are most commonly associated with human disease.
  • Speciation of nocardiae is precluded in most clinical laboratories, although improvements in mass spectrometry–based techniques may change this limitation in high-resource countries.
  • Nocardia brasiliensis is most often associated with localized skin lesions.

There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.