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BOTULISM is a topic covered in the Harrison's Manual of Medicine.

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Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Pathogenesis

Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by neurotoxins elaborated by Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic spore-forming gram-positive bacterium, as well as a few other toxigenic Clostridium spp.

  • Botulism is caused by the toxin’s inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction through an enzymatic mechanism.
    • C. botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and (rarely) F cause human disease, with toxin type A causing the most severe syndrome.
    • Toxin type E is associated with foods of aquatic origin.
  • Transmission is usually due to consumption of foods contaminated with botulinum toxin, but contamination of wounds with spores also can result in disease.
    • Most U.S. food-borne cases (average, 23 cases per year) are associated with home-canned food.
    • Infant botulism results from toxigenic clostridial colonization of the intestine of children <1 year of age and is the most common form of the disease in the United States, with ~80–100 cases reported annually.
  • Toxin is heat-labile, and spores are heat-resistant; these properties underscore the importance of properly heating foods.
  • Botulinum toxin is among the most toxic substances known and thus is of concern as a potential weapon of bioterrorism.

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Loscalzo, Joseph, et al., editors. "BOTULISM." Harrison's Manual of Medicine, 19th ed., McGraw Hill Inc., 2017. harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623241/all/BOTULISM.
BOTULISM. In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, et al, eds. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623241/all/BOTULISM. Accessed April 21, 2019.
BOTULISM. (2017). In Loscalzo, J., Jameson, J. L., Longo, D. L., Hauser, S. L., Fauci, A. S., & Kasper, D. L. (Eds.), Harrison's Manual of Medicine. Available from https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623241/all/BOTULISM
BOTULISM [Internet]. In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, Hauser SL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, editors. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. [cited 2019 April 21]. Available from: https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623241/all/BOTULISM.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - BOTULISM ID - 623241 ED - Loscalzo,Joseph, ED - Jameson,J Larry, ED - Longo,Dan L, ED - Hauser,Stephen L, ED - Fauci,Anthony S, ED - Kasper,Dennis L, BT - Harrison's Manual of Medicine UR - https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623241/all/BOTULISM PB - McGraw Hill Inc. ET - 19 DB - Harrison's Manual of Medicine DP - Unbound Medicine ER -