Chapter 88: Pneumococcal Infections


  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a gram-positive coccus that grows in chains, causes α-hemolysis on blood agar, is bile soluble, and is sensitive to optochin.
  • Nearly every clinical isolate has a polysaccharide capsule that protects the bacteria from phagocytosis in the absence of type-specific antibody; 98 distinct capsules have been identified.

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