Harrison’s Manual of Medicine 19th edition provides 600+ internal medicine topics in a rapid-access format. Download Harrison’s App to iPhone, iPad, and Android smartphone and tablet. Explore these free sample topics:
-- The first section of this topic is shown below --
Dyspnea, a subjective experience of uncomfortable breathing, is a symptom that typically results from cardiopulmonary problems that cause an increased drive to breathe, increased work of breathing, and/or stimulation of specific receptors in the heart, lungs, or vasculature. Assessment begins by determining the quality and intensity of the discomfort.