Chapter 35: Dyspnea


Dyspnea, a subjective experience of uncomfortable breathing, is a symptom that typically results from cardiac, pulmonary, and neurologic etiologies that cause an increased drive to breathe, increased work of breathing, and/or stimulation of specific receptors in the heart, lungs, or vasculature. Assessment begins by determining the quality and intensity of the discomfort. Chronic dyspnea is typically defined as symptoms lasting >1 month.

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