Chapter 207: Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide; prevention is targeted at modifiable risk factors (Table 207-1). Identification and control of these attributes reduce cardiovascular event rates.

TABLE 207-1: Atherosclerotic Risk Factors

Modifiable Risk Factors

 Cigarette smoking

 Dyslipidemias (↑LDL or ↓HDL)


 Diabetes mellitus


 Sedentary lifestyle

Unmodifiable Risk Factors

 Premature coronary heart disease in first-degree relatives (age <55 in men, <65 in women)

 Age (men ≥45 years; women ≥55 years)

 Male sex

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