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Sudden onset of a neurologic deficit from a vascular mechanism: ~85% are ischemic; ~15% are primary hemorrhages (subarachnoid [Chap. 18] and intraparenchymal). An ischemic deficit that resolves rapidly without radiologic evidence of an infarction is termed a transient ischemic attack (TIA); 24 h is a commonly used boundary between TIA and stroke, although most TIAs last between 5 and 15 min. Stroke is a leading cause of neurologic disability in adults; 200,000 deaths annually in the United States. Much can be done to limit morbidity and mortality through prevention and acute intervention.