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Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea is a topic covered in the Harrison's Manual of Medicine.

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DEFINITION AND ETIOLOGY

Sleep apnea is defined by the presence of at least five episodes per hour of apnea (no airflow for ≥10 seconds) and/or hypopnea (reduction in airflow by at least 30% from baseline for ≥10 seconds accompanied by oxygen desaturation or arousal from sleep). Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is caused by upper airway closure during inspiration, punctuated by brief arousals that terminate apneic episodes. Risk factors for OSAHS include obesity, craniofacial factors such as micrognathia, family history of OSAHS, and male sex. Hypothyroidism and acromegaly are systemic diseases associated with OSAHS. OSAHS increases the risk of multiple cardiovascular conditions, including coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and arrhythmias.

Central sleep apnea (CSA) is characterized by respiratory pauses during sleep related to absence of respiratory effort. CSA is less common than OSAHS but may occur in conjunction with it. CSA is commonly found in heart failure and stroke pts, but may also occur from opioid medications and hypoxia (e.g., breathing at high altitudes).

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Citation

Loscalzo, Joseph, et al., editors. "Sleep Apnea." Harrison's Manual of Medicine, 19th ed., McGraw Hill Inc., 2017. harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623053/all/Sleep_Apnea.
Sleep Apnea. In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, et al, eds. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623053/all/Sleep_Apnea. Accessed April 23, 2019.
Sleep Apnea. (2017). In Loscalzo, J., Jameson, J. L., Longo, D. L., Hauser, S. L., Fauci, A. S., & Kasper, D. L. (Eds.), Harrison's Manual of Medicine. Available from https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623053/all/Sleep_Apnea
Sleep Apnea [Internet]. In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, Hauser SL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, editors. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. [cited 2019 April 23]. Available from: https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623053/all/Sleep_Apnea.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Sleep Apnea ID - 623053 ED - Loscalzo,Joseph, ED - Jameson,J Larry, ED - Longo,Dan L, ED - Hauser,Stephen L, ED - Fauci,Anthony S, ED - Kasper,Dennis L, BT - Harrison's Manual of Medicine UR - https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623053/all/Sleep_Apnea PB - McGraw Hill Inc. ET - 19 DB - Harrison's Manual of Medicine DP - Unbound Medicine ER -