Acute Pulmonary Edema

Acute Pulmonary Edema is a topic covered in the Harrison's Manual of Medicine.

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Life-threatening, acute development of alveolar lung edema due to one or more of the following:

  1. Elevation of hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries (left heart failure, mitral stenosis).
  2. Specific precipitants (Table 13-1), resulting in cardiogenic pulmonary edema in pts with previously compensated heart failure or without previous cardiac history.
  3. Increased permeability of pulmonary alveolar-capillary membrane (noncardiogenic pulmonary edema). For common causes, see Table 13-2.
TABLE 13-1: PRECIPITANTS OF ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
Acute tachy- or bradyarrhythmia
Infection, fever
Acute MI
Severe hypertension
Acute mitral or aortic regurgitation
Increased circulating volume (Na+ ingestion, blood transfusion, pregnancy)
Increased metabolic demands (exercise, hyperthyroidism)
Pulmonary embolism
Noncompliance (sudden discontinuation) of chronic CHF medications
TABLE 13-2: COMMON CAUSES OF NONCARDIOGENIC PULMONARY EDEMA
Direct Injury to Lung
Chest trauma, pulmonary contusionPneumonia
AspirationOxygen toxicity
Smoke inhalationPulmonary embolism, reperfusion
Hematogenous Injury to Lung
SepsisMultiple transfusions
PancreatitisIV drug use, e.g., heroin
Nonthoracic traumaCardiopulmonary bypass
Possible Lung Injury Plus Elevated Hydrostatic Pressures
High-altitude pulmonary edemaReexpansion pulmonary edema
Neurogenic pulmonary edema 

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TY - ELEC T1 - Acute Pulmonary Edema ID - 623046 Y1 - 2017 PB - Harrison's Manual of Medicine UR - https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623046/all/Acute_Pulmonary_Edema ER -