Acute Pulmonary Edema
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Life-threatening, acute development of alveolar lung edema due to one or more of the following:
- Elevation of hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries (left heart failure, mitral stenosis).
- Specific precipitants (Table 13-1), resulting in cardiogenic pulmonary edema in pts with previously compensated heart failure or without previous cardiac history.
- Increased permeability of pulmonary alveolar-capillary membrane (noncardiogenic pulmonary edema). For common causes, see Table 13-2.
|Acute tachy- or bradyarrhythmia|
|Acute mitral or aortic regurgitation|
|Increased circulating volume (Na+ ingestion, blood transfusion, pregnancy)|
|Increased metabolic demands (exercise, hyperthyroidism)|
|Noncompliance (sudden discontinuation) of chronic CHF medications|
|Direct Injury to Lung|
|Chest trauma, pulmonary contusion||Pneumonia|
|Smoke inhalation||Pulmonary embolism, reperfusion|
|Hematogenous Injury to Lung|
|Pancreatitis||IV drug use, e.g., heroin|
|Nonthoracic trauma||Cardiopulmonary bypass|
|Possible Lung Injury Plus Elevated Hydrostatic Pressures|
|High-altitude pulmonary edema||Reexpansion pulmonary edema|
|Neurogenic pulmonary edema|