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OSTEONECROSIS (AVASCULAR NECROSIS) is a topic covered in the Harrison's Manual of Medicine.

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Caused by death of cellular elements of bone, believed to be due to impairment in blood supply. Frequent associations include glucocorticoid treatment, connective tissue disease, trauma, sickle cell disease, embolization, alcohol use, and HIV disease. Commonly involved sites include femoral and humeral heads, femoral condyles, and proximal tibia. Hip disease is bilateral in >50% of cases. Clinical presentation is usually the abrupt onset of articular pain. Early changes are not visible on plain radiograph and are best seen by MRI; later stages demonstrate bone collapse (“crescent sign”), flattening of articular surface with joint space loss. Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a rare occurrence associated with cancer treatments (including radiation), infection, glucocorticoids, or bone antiresorptive therapies.

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Loscalzo, Joseph, et al., editors. "OSTEONECROSIS (AVASCULAR NECROSIS)." Harrison's Manual of Medicine, 19th ed., McGraw Hill Inc., 2017. harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623409/all/OSTEONECROSIS__AVASCULAR_NECROSIS_.
OSTEONECROSIS (AVASCULAR NECROSIS). In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, et al, eds. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623409/all/OSTEONECROSIS__AVASCULAR_NECROSIS_. Accessed April 21, 2019.
OSTEONECROSIS (AVASCULAR NECROSIS). (2017). In Loscalzo, J., Jameson, J. L., Longo, D. L., Hauser, S. L., Fauci, A. S., & Kasper, D. L. (Eds.), Harrison's Manual of Medicine. Available from https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623409/all/OSTEONECROSIS__AVASCULAR_NECROSIS_
OSTEONECROSIS (AVASCULAR NECROSIS) [Internet]. In: Loscalzo J, Jameson JL, Longo DL, Hauser SL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, editors. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. McGraw Hill Inc.; 2017. [cited 2019 April 21]. Available from: https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623409/all/OSTEONECROSIS__AVASCULAR_NECROSIS_.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - OSTEONECROSIS (AVASCULAR NECROSIS) ID - 623409 ED - Loscalzo,Joseph, ED - Jameson,J Larry, ED - Longo,Dan L, ED - Hauser,Stephen L, ED - Fauci,Anthony S, ED - Kasper,Dennis L, BT - Harrison's Manual of Medicine UR - https://harrisons.unboundmedicine.com/harrisons/view/Harrisons-Manual-of-Medicine/623409/all/OSTEONECROSIS__AVASCULAR_NECROSIS_ PB - McGraw Hill Inc. ET - 19 DB - Harrison's Manual of Medicine DP - Unbound Medicine ER -