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The major classes of lung diseases include obstructive lung diseases (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis), restrictive lung diseases (e.g., interstitial lung diseases, chest wall abnormalities, and neuromuscular diseases), and vascular abnormalities (e.g., pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease). The respiratory system includes not only the lungs but also the chest wall, pulmonary circulation, and central nervous system. There are three key types of respiratory system physiologic disturbances that occur in varying combinations in different lung diseases: ventilatory function, pulmonary circulation, and gas exchange.