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Mental disorders are common in medical practice and may present either as a primary disorder or as a comorbid condition. The prevalence of mental or substance use disorders in the United States is ~30%, but only one-third of those individuals are currently receiving treatment.
Disorders of mood, thinking, and behavior may be due to a primary psychiatric diagnosis or a personality disorder or may be secondary to metabolic abnormalities, drug toxicities, focal cerebral lesions, seizure disorders, or degenerative neurologic disease. Any pt presenting with new onset of psychiatric symptoms must be evaluated for underlying psychoactive substance abuse and/or medical or neurologic illness. Psychiatric medications are discussed in Chap. 197.